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Cryotherapy is also known as ice application. Cryotherapy is an effective way to treat injuries such as bursitis (inflammation and/or swelling of joints), tenosynovitis (inflammation of the fluid-filled sheath that surrounds the tendon), and tendonitis (inflammation or irritation of a tendon). Ice is believed to be able to control pain, reduce swelling, and decreases discomfort after athletic reconditioning.
Cryotherapy has three to four stages of sensation;
First Stage: Uncomfortable feeling of cold
Second Stage: Stinging sensation
Third: Burning or aching feelings
Thermotherapy is a treatment that involves the use of heat in therapy. The therapeutic effects of heat include:
Increasing the extensibility of soft tissues.
Decreasing joint stiffness.
Relieving muscle spasms.
Increasing blood flow to speed up the healing process.
The increased blood flow to the affected area helps better help by providing proteins, nutrients, and most necessary oxygen.
This treatment is beneficial for patients with arthritis, stiff muscles, and injuries to the skin's deep tissue.
Hot packs, paraffin wax, and infrared radiation (IRR) achieve the heating effect during treatment.
Cupping is a therapy that requires cups to be placed on the skin to create suction and left on the area for 5 to 15 minutes, depending on the patient's condition. This suction process will mobilise the blood and energy or "qi" flow and promote the healing of a broad range of medical illnesses.
Patients can experience relief of pain, relaxation of stiff muscles, removal of congested blood, and relief from chronic joint rheumatism after cupping therapy is done. In addition, pain caused by menstruation, venomous bites, dermatosis, common cold, pain in the lumbar region, and so on can be treated by cupping as it helps to remove the wind dampness or heat from the patient.
Dry needling is a treatment where thin filament needles are inserted to stimulate the trigger points and help heal. A trigger point is an extreme irritable point in muscles connected to a hypersensitive palpable nodule.
Dry needling treatment is different from acupuncture. The objectives and philosophy behind dry needling are based on Western Neuroanatomy and modern scientific study of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems. In contrast, acupuncture is based on ancient theories of traditional Chinese medicine.
Patients with healthy muscles will only experience minor discomfort with inserting these needles; however, if the muscles are sensitive, the patients will feel a sensation similar to a muscle cramp. In addition, the side effects of dry needling may vary among individuals. Still, typically, patients may only experience minor muscle soreness or skin bruising.
Electrotherapy (TENS, EMS, NMES)
Electrotherapy is a treatment that uses electrical signals to interfere with the transmission of neural pain signals into the brain to slow down or distract the “pain message” from the nerve to the brain. As a result, electrotherapy can increase the speed of the tissue healing process.
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is a very safe electrotherapy method. It is widely used for various painful conditions such as arthritis, low back pain, and nerve-related pain. It can also stimulate the production of endorphins (natural pain-relieving hormones). A small electrical device will deliver electrical impulses across the skin. Wires connect this TENS device to sticky pad electrodes placed on the skin in the pain area to allow a small and low-intensity electric charge to pass across the pain area.
EMS is a treatment similar to TENS, targeting more muscle tissue. This form of electrotherapy will stimulate the motor neurons, which cause muscles to contract. EMS is commonly used by athletes or anyone that needs muscle recovery treatment.
While some methods of electrotherapy target nerves, EMS targets muscle tissue. This specialised form of electrotherapy stimulates your motor neurons which causes your muscles to contract. This is often used in cases to treat and prevent muscle atrophy.
Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation or NMES is a treatment in which a device is used to send electrical impulses to nerves. This input causes our muscles to contract. The electrical stimulation can increase strength and range of motion and offset the effects of disuse. It is often used to “re-train” or “re-educate” a muscle to function and build strength after surgery or a period of disuse.
Electrotherapy treatment is not addictive and has very few side effects; however, it is unsuitable for people with epilepsy, pacemakers, other heart diseases, certain skin conditions, and unknown causes of pain.
Joint mobilisation treatment is a passive hands-on movement technique applied to the patient’s stiff joint. This treatment has pain-killing effects and can relieve pain in joints. In addition, this treatment can be highly effective when healing nerve or muscular injuries in patients.
Joint mobilisation is generally a very safe treatment with infrequent side effects. Some rare side effects include post-treatment soreness that should last no longer than a few days and pain during treatment, which is momentary and passes off quickly after treatment.
Spinal Manual Therapy
Spinal manual therapy or spine care treatment refers to the hands-on treatment of spinal pain. It encompasses a broad group of sophisticated techniques our highly trained physiotherapists perform. Spinal disorders include low back pain, chest pain, neck pain, and headaches. Spinal manual therapy or spine care treatment can relieve back pain by reducing muscle tension, promoting the release of endorphins within the body to act as natural painkillers, restoring blood flow, and taking pressure off sensitive nerves or tissues.
Spinal manual therapy or spine care treatment is very safe, and side effects are infrequent. However, some rare side effects are light headiness (patients who receive neck mobilisation), post-treatment soreness that should last no longer than a few days, and pain during treatment that is momentary and passes off quickly after treatment.
Soft Tissue Manipulation
Soft tissue manipulation is an umbrella term covering a range of physiotherapy techniques involving soft tissue movement. Soft tissue manipulation includes massage therapy, muscle energy techniques, trigger point release, and deep transverse friction massage. This treatment aims to improve the mobility of stiff and immobile soft tissues and tissue that has poor circulation due to inactivity or increased tension. Soft tissue manipulation can also prevent long-term recurrence of inflammation as it is used to help mobilise scar tissue.
This treatment involves the movement of the affected tissues. Therefore, it can be quite uncomfortable, mainly if the tissues are very tight or deep structures. However, our physiotherapists will be able to guide treatment to a level that our patients can tolerate.
Kinesio Taping Treatment
Kinesio taping treatment is a revolutionary soft-tissue injury treatment that relieves and accelerates healing for sprains, strains, bruises, muscle tears, etc. This modern treatment encourages the body’s capacity to heal by facilitating muscle activity and reducing swelling. This treatment is also widely used by athletes from all over the world.
Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy (ESWT)
Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy (ESWT), also known as shockwave therapy, is a non-surgical treatment used to treat acute or chronic musculoskeletal disorders or injuries.
Electro Needle Therapy
Electro Needle Therapy is a treatment to prevent pain signals from travelling to the brain and is often used as a long-term pain relief therapy. As a result, the patient will experience twitching, contractions, numbness, or tingling in the area that is being treated.
Gua Sha / IASTM
Gua Sha or Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilisation (IASTM), a modern method of the traditional gua sha, is a type of friction massage that can reach the deep tissue of the patients during the massage. These treatments are used to speed up muscle recovery and relieve pain. They are effective even for women experiencing perimenopause symptoms, such as sweating, insomnia, and headaches.
Ultrasound treatment is electrotherapy used by physiotherapists for many years to improve the healing rate of specific soft tissues, increase blood flow to the treated area, and accelerate the inflammatory process's resolution time. It can also stimulate the production of collagen, which acts as the main protein in tendons and ligaments during the tissue healing process.
Vestibular rehabilitation is a physiotherapy treatment that treats patients with dizziness or balance, often related to inner ear issues. This treatment includes a series of planned exercises designed by the physiotherapists to reduce these issues. These exercises include balance retraining, stretching and strengthening, vision stability training, walking exercises, and posture training. This rehabilitation treatment is often part of a post-surgery treatment plan for patients.
This treatment aims to improve the patient’s balance and reduce dizziness often related to inner-ear issues.
Vestibular rehabilitation treatment takes between 6 to 8 weeks with 1 or 2 physiotherapy sessions each week. Some patients can see effective results in just 1 or 2 physiotherapy sessions. However, patients with more severe vertigo issues may need a more extended period of rehabilitation treatment.
Stroke rehabilitation is crucial as a part of recovery after a stroke. A stroke rehabilitation programme aims to help the patient regain independence and improve their quality of life. It is proven that stroke patients who participated in a focused stroke rehabilitation programme perform better and regain independence quicker than those who did not participate in a stroke rehabilitation programme.
The stroke rehabilitation programme will be customised according to the part of the body and the type of ability affected by the stroke.
Physical activities might include
To improve muscle strength and coordination
Learn to use mobility aids such as walkers, canes, or wheelchair
Also known as forced-use therapy
Practise moving the affected limb to help improve its function while restraining the unaffected limb
Customised exercises and treatments such as massage to ease spasticity (muscle tension) and regain range of motion
On top of that, patients will be given functional electrical stimulation during the stroke rehabilitation programme to re-educate the muscles.
The duration of a stroke rehabilitation may differ based on the severity of the stroke and any other related complications. Recovering from a stroke is a long and frustrating experience, and it’s normal to face difficulties. Support and help from family members are essential to the patient’s recovery. Nevertheless, the patient’s dedication and willingness towards improvement and regaining independence and improvement are the keys to an effective stroke rehabilitation programme.